Post-Polio Syndrome: Polio Sequelae

Post-polio syndrome is a rare neurological disease included in the group of motor neuron diseases secondary to an infection.

It is characterized by fatigue, progressive muscle weakness with loss of function, and pain, and that appears exclusively in patients who were infected by the poliovirus between thirty or forty years earlier.

At present, it is estimated that in Spain there are about 300,000 people with polio sequelae.

The post-polio syndrome occurs in 20-80% of people who were affected by polio, it is more common in women, and there is a direct relationship between the risk of suffering from this syndrome and the degree of severity of polio sequelae.

During infection with the poliovirus, many of the neurons of the anterior spinal cord antlers are damaged or destroyed; others survive polio and assume the function of the injured neurons; in this way, the patient regains control of his muscles at the cost of a hyperfunction of the surviving cells.

After a period of between thirty and forty years or even more, these overloaded neurons begin to fail to lead to the onset of the disease.

The restoration of neuronal function may occur a second time in some fibers, but, over time, nerve terminals are destroyed, and the disease becomes permanent.

Evolution of Neurons

Some authors also point out the importance of the normal aging process that, by itself, causes a decrease in the number of neurons with the consequent muscle weakness. This process helps to increase the symptoms of post-polio syndrome. No evidence was found that the syndrome is due to a reactivation of the virus.

Post-polio syndrome can be triggered after a fall, a prolonged rest period, a mild accident, or with the onset of other diseases.

Clinically it manifests itself as a progressive muscular weakness, atrophy of the extremities, of the bulbar innervation muscles and of the respiratory muscles, combined with fatigue, decreased resistance to arthralgia exertion, and asthenia.

Another type of later manifestations may be difficulty swallowing, respiratory problems, speech disorders, and psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, and impaired concentration and memory. All this entails a great limitation to perform daily activities, which makes these patients tend to gain weight.

An evolution marks the process in outbreaks, and the severity of the syndrome depends on the severity of the initial polio process: patients who suffered from mild polio will have minimal symptoms if they suffer from post-polio syndrome. In contrast, those who were most severely affected by the virus will have a more acute post-polio syndrome with greater loss of muscle function.

The diagnosis is clinical and is based on the history of polio, a neurological examination, and a series of complementary tests aimed at ruling out other possible causes of disease.

The loss of strength of the patient must also be evaluated over time. For this, nuclear magnetic resonance, muscle biopsy, electrophysiological studies, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis are used.

 Generally, post-polio syndrome is not life-threatening, except in those patients who experience acute respiratory deterioration.

Betting Casino Games

Betting Casino Games
If you enjoy gambling, then you might want to consider betting casino games. These games are
based on chance and the house is almost always the winner best malaysia online casino. This means that you can’t win
every time you bet, but you can definitely gain an edge if you know how to bet properly. The
main difference between sports and casino betting is that in the former, the odds are always
fixed and are based on concrete numbers. In the latter, the house is usually the winner.

Casino Gambling vs Sports Betting - Major Differences and Similarities
Internet gambling, also known as online gambling, involves betting on different games using the
internet The most common games in the market include poker, lotteries, slots, roulette, and
keno. These games are becoming increasingly popular in the United States as the accessibility
and temptation of easy money makes them a highly popular option. However, Connecticut has
struggled to legalize these games, making them a prime target for other states. In order to make
these games legal, the state government and legislators must first pass the relevant laws.
Before you can start gambling, you need to build a bankroll. This is because, regardless of your
type of gambling, you’ll need to work with a set amount of money in order to have a chance at
winning. While this can be tricky, there are some things you can do to avoid losing more than
you’re willing to lose. Keeping a budget and working bankroll will ensure that you can play safely
and enjoy yourself.

When it comes to casino games, there is always a right and a wrong play. Unlike sports, a bet
that is placed on a sports event is a sure thing. Whether you’re betting on a tennis match or on a
baseball game, the oddsmakers will have a fair idea of the outcome. The difference lies in the
method in which a casino determines the odds. The casino will not only have a fair way to set
the odds, but they will also use a statistically sound system to calculate each play.
In the current online gambling market, Europe dominated the market in terms of revenue. The
country accounted for more than 50% of global revenues in 2019 and is expected to dominate
the market for many years to come. In addition to Western European countries, Asia Pacific is
projected to grow at a high rate in the coming years. Its population and internet penetration are
the main factors driving this growth. It’s important to understand how the overall market works so
you can find the best betting casino for you.
It’s important to know the basics of betting casino. All gambling requires a working bankroll. The
most important factor is knowing how much money you can afford to lose. Having a good
bankroll is crucial for gambling. In this industry, the risk of losing a lot of money is low, which is
why it is important to be cautious and stick to a strict strategy. You should also know the odds of
winning the game.…

Interesting Facts you should know about casino

สำหรับมือใหม่ที่เล่นคาสิโนอาจเป็นประสบการณ์ที่น่าสนใจทีเดียว เมื่อคุณเยี่ยมชมคาสิโนในพื้นที่เป็นครั้งแรกคุณอาจพบหลายสิ่งหลายอย่างเกี่ยวกับที่นี่ คุณจะเพลิดเพลินไปกับประสบการณ์ที่คาสิโนอย่างแน่นอนเพราะทุกคนจะตื่นเต้นมากที่ได้ลองเล่นเกมต่างๆ เมื่อคุณลองเล่นเกมด้วยตัวคุณเองแล้วคุณจะเข้าใจอย่างแน่นอนว่าการเล่นเกมเหล่านี้เป็นอย่างไร ดังนั้นคุณสามารถสำรวจความจริงประเภทต่างๆที่คาสิโนและเพลิดเพลินไปกับช่วงเวลาที่ดี


คุณไม่สามารถตื่นขึ้นมาในช่วงแรกของวันสวมเสื้อผ้าและเดินเข้าไปในคาสิโนเพื่อเล่นเกมและคาดหวังว่าคุณจะได้รับโชคสักครู่เมื่อคุณต้องการเล่นเกมใด ๆ เพียงเพราะคุณควรเข้าใจมาตรฐานของเกมเพื่อไม่ให้บอทช์ คาสิโนออนไลน์เกือบทั้งหมดให้บริการเกมฟรีแก่นักพนันเพื่อเรียนรู้และทำความเข้าใจก่อนที่จะเล่นการพนันด้วยเงินของพวกเขา


ไม่มีใครจ่ายค่าธรรมเนียมส่วนให้กับคาสิโนเนื่องจากองค์กรคาสิโนตระหนักดีว่าพวกเขาสามารถรับเงินจำนวนมากจากคุณได้เมื่อเวลาผ่านไปของเกม กำไรเรียกอีกอย่างว่าขอบบ้าน ใน ไทย คา สิ โน ออนไลน์ รจากคาสิโนให้เล่นเกมที่มีขอบบ้านต่ำ 

เกมอย่างแบล็คแจ็คควรเป็นเกมที่คุณควรเล่นเพราะมีขอบบ้านต่ำ หากคุณอยู่ในเกมที่มีความได้เปรียบสูงบ้านของพวกเขาจะชนะในขณะที่คุณสูญเสียเงินสดจำนวนมากเช่นนี้

อย่าทำการเดิมพันข้างใด ๆ

ระบบที่คุณใช้ในการเล่นเกมใด ๆ คือสิ่งที่ตัดสินว่าคุณจะชนะหรือแพ้ หากคุณมีระบบที่ดีคุณสามารถเปลี่ยนขอบบ้านของเกมคาสิโนและชั้นขึ้นประสบความสำเร็จมากขึ้นเมื่อคุณกำลังเล่นการพนัน 

ส่วนใหญ่สล็อตไม่มีเทคนิคดังนั้นคุณควรรักษาระยะห่างเชิงกลยุทธ์จากเกมประเภทนี้ Craps และ baccarat เป็นเกมที่ดูเหมือนจะไม่ใช้วิธีการเช่นเดียวกัน แต่ผู้เล่นที่ยอดเยี่ยมตระหนักดีว่าพวกเขาควรทำการเดิมพันบางอย่าง


ผ่านลอตเตอรี่คาสิโนเปิดโอกาสให้ผู้คนได้รับรางวัลใหญ่เพียงเล็กน้อย ตามความเป็นจริงโอกาสในการชนะลอตเตอรีนั้นสูงมาก แทนที่จะวางเดิมพันในลอตเตอรีให้เก็บเงินของคุณโดยการเล่นเกมโดยพื้นฐานเช่นสล็อต ด้วยวิธีนี้คุณมีความเป็นไปได้ที่จะชนะเกมโดยไม่ต้องนั่งเครียดเพราะกรรมของผู้หญิงจะตีคุณด้วยการชนะลอตเตอรี่ที่เปลี่ยนแปลงชีวิต


สล็อตเป็นเกมคาสิโนที่เป็นที่รู้จักมากที่สุด สล็อต นำเงินไปที่คาสิโนมากกว่าเกมต่างๆรวมกัน คาสิโนส่วนใหญ่มีคลับสล็อตที่คุณสามารถเข้าร่วมได้ เมื่อคุณเข้าร่วมคุณจะได้รับไพ่ดอกจิกและใช้ในการพนัน Comps มอบให้เป็นรางวัลแก่สมาชิกของคลับนี้ ด้วยเหตุนี้คลับสล็อตจึงดึงดูดผู้คนเข้ามามากขึ้น

นี่คือข้อเท็จจริงที่น่าสนใจบางส่วนที่คุณควรรู้เกี่ยวกับคาสิโนก่อนเข้าร่วม จะช่วยให้คุณสำรวจสิ่งต่างๆในไซต์เพื่อที่คุณจะได้ไม่ต้องกังวลกับสิ่งใด ๆ

Various Facts About Online Or Digital Marketing!

Various Facts About Online Or Digital Marketing!

Technology has advanced rapidly in the 21st century. The market is not going to wait for you to adapt and change. Transformation is inevitable. Innovation will take place in some span of time. This change brings about many reforms in its field accordingly. You are also a part of this Business Innovation due to the introduction of the internet in business marketing. Marketing in business has changed in a lot of ways. Nowadays there is a buzz word known as “Digital Marketing”. Digital marketing is the use of digital media to promote your product and attract customers online cryptocurrency web design or offline. You can grow your business network through online media just sitting at your home and make your own business grow and flourish.

How it is done?

Billboard advertising is not an efficient way of marketing these days. There are lots of benefits of digital marketing. You can get data from digital marketing and estimate the size of your market. You get an idea of your market and all the data facts about it. It includes the age of your customers, interest, and desires of customers, the products highly in demand in the digital media and every other factor that may affect your sales. Digital devices that our customers use and the digital data that is collected makes digital marketing the most important form of marketing.

Businesses are getting adaptable to digital marketing. With the on-going boom in this industry, there are perks attached to every step taken ahead. You must be wondering what the digital marketing tools available to you are. This Era is the era of social media. Digital marketing came into existence due to the rise of these social media apps. You can meet new clients and make new business deals. 

The perks of digital marketing:

You can also become good at digital marketing. You can learn from various courses available on the internet. It will thoroughly guide you through and know the basics of digital marketing. To find growth in business, you must network a lot of customers. Whether it is Google, Facebook, all the E-commerce websites they all have built a digital marketing system to develop their business network. The business network is expanded by the online-users automatically. It is very difficult for a beginner to develop a system of digital marketing so strong. But one day you can achieve it through consistent learning and research into this domain. 

This is a brief Idea of what Digital marketing video is all about. Digital marketing is a very interesting field for you to make a career out of it. You can make amazing new connections in your business through digital marketing if you are able to present yourself clearly and attract a lot of eyes. I hope this article inspires you to bring about a change in the digital marketing field through your innovative mindset and logical thinking.

House Exchange, An Alternative To Traditional Travel

When I first heard about the exchange of houses to travel, I will not deceive you: I had many doubts. To this day, all the questions have disappeared, and it has become best slot game Malaysia commonplace when preparing my vacations. In this article, I will tell you about my experience with this hosting formula.

When I made my first home exchange on a trip, I had tried other winbet2u alternative ways of accommodation before. For many years the option chosen was always that of the traditional hotel. I have a degree in tourism, and for many years, I worked in a reservation center. I associated vacations with a hotel.

Since I started working in the media, and I had to travel frequently to Madrid – for work meetings and events – I also started to book in hostels. He spent very little time in accommodation and was a way to make the trip cheaper.

Then Airbnb arrived, and I started to try it. What I liked most was being able to have “a house” for my trips and vacations. I didn’t have to be aware of whether room service was coming in the morning. I could cook my own food and used it to find cheaper alternatives to hotels in many cities.

House Exchange and Guest To Guest

Although I had already heard of the exchange of houses, I had not tried it yet. My first experience with this form of hosting was with GuestToGuest. A company that proposed two alternatives: make a reciprocal exchange or do it by redeeming it for guest points – in a few paragraphs, I explain what they are. On the other hand, there was another company, operated by the same owners, called House Exchange, and here you could only make reservations between users of one house for another.

Reciprocal and non-reciprocal exchange

Now I will explain to you what the difference is in doing it in one way or another.

Reciprocal exchange: you receive in your home a person who will also be in yours at the same time. There is also the possibility of preparing it on different dates, but with that same user. It is reciprocal because you will be both: host and guest during this exchange.

Non-reciprocal exchange: imagine that the person who hosts you is not interested in going to your house. Or that a user of the platform asks you for accommodation in yours, but you have no intention of going to his villa in Florida. How can you make that stay? With GuestPoints It is a non-reciprocal exchange and is done with.

Each house has a different GuestPoints rating per night. Which depends on several factors such as the location, the number of rooms, the capacity of the house, and the amenities: WIFI, pool, barbecue, garage, beachfront, garden … Summing up: as with the price of hotels depending on the services each one has.

When you host a HomeExchange member in your home, you receive points, which you can then take advantage of to spend on other trips where the exchange is not reciprocal. This is the main novelty in the change to this new platform. I find it very practical because I don’t have to square an exchange on exact dates. I understand that it must also be very practical for people who travel a lot, like me, and those who have that house as a second residence.…

Musicals In London, My Wish List

When you start looking for information about ethereal musicals in London, you realize that there are many and that everyone has “pintza.” I found this e plus group website that has almost all of them, and you can also buy tickets there.

  • The Lion King
  • The Phantom of the Opera
  • School of Rock

The Lion King

For a generation, this musical was a sensation. In Spain, the boom of this genre began with him. The great success of the film was very recent and today still works great in Madrid. For me – I hate that they translate the songs of the Disney movies – listening to the music in the original version is a great incentive.

The Phantom of the Opera

This masterpiece by Andrew Lloyd Webber is considered “the musical.” The amount of awards it has received since its premiere in the 80s is long, very long.

School of Rock

If you’ve seen Joe Black’s movie, it sure happens to you like me: now you want to try the musical because we both would have loved to have a teacher in high school like Dewey Finn.

In addition to the original songs of the film, there are pieces by Andrew Lloyd Weber. Do you sign up for the biggest band battle in the world? I already know the answer. Keep in mind that its price is very affordable and will allow you to combine it with the rest that has more expensive tickets.

You have seen the films on which they are based feminine drink, and you may have seen the musical in Spain. Now it is the turn to do it in the London West End, in the original version. If you have already been in one or want to recommend another one that you want to see: tell me in the comments.…

Driving On The West Coast, Tips And Experience

If you really want to enjoy the West Coast, you have to do it by car. A road trip through the Grand Canyon and Yosemite is an incredible experience. I will help you make it easy and simple with these 96ace tips that I have prepared for you.

In the United States, without a car, you are nobody. The distances are huge, and even the smallest city is prepared for four-wheelers and not for pedestrians. In this article, I will tell you about my experience when driving on the West Coast. I will also give you some tips so that you have a great experience on your road trip.

The USA is a very large country, but also very diverse. Each state has its own rules and laws, different orography, and circumstances that you have to take into account for your trip. But before getting into the flour with the practical information, I wanted to tell you a secret: making a road trip over there is an amazing experience!

How much does gasoline cost on the West Coast?

In the United States, there are diesel and gasoline cars. The normal thing is that the car you get at the car rental office is second. Within gasoline, there are three types, with different prices. The cheapest is the regular one, which will be the one you will miss during your trip.

The first thing you have to know is that there the price you will see on the gas station panels is not per liter but per gallon. Surely now, you are wondering how many liters a gallon of gasoline has.

A gallon is 3,785 liters.

If you take the bills right away, you will notice that the fuel there is much cheaper than in Spain and that driving on the West Coast is not as expensive as you thought.

Cash or card?

When paying, you have the option to do it at the supplier itself. You may have problems with your credit card when paying it on that machine. If so: you will have to go inside the service station. If you are going to fill the tank with a card, do not panic if the employee asks you to keep it until you finish filling your car with gas. There is something usual. The other option is to prepay. For example, you pay 25 dollars – with your visa or in cash -, fill in, and if you have only spent 21, you return to the counter to get the four you did not consume back.

How do you drive an automatic car?

Driving an automatic car is the best thing that can happen to you if you are going to spend a lot of time behind the wheel. I had already tried it on other trips, but for Monica, this was her first time, and she ended up delighted.

In the United States, you will only rent automatic cars. Its driving is simple and cheaper. Unlike manuals, these types of vehicles have the following positions on their gearshift:

  • Drive It is the one you will use the most. It is the one you should use to move.
  • Parking. The one you put to the park. Most cars will beep or lock the key if not left when the engine is turned off. With it selected, you will not need the handbrake in most places where there are no ramps.
  • Rear. It is the reverse. It is better to change from D to P and then R.
  • Low. It is like a first. Not all cars have it.
  • Neutral It is the deadlock; Forget him.

The Fight Against Polio, In Seven Facts

On the occasion of the celebration of World Poliomyelitis Day, we highlight the main milestones of the global battle against this disease.

  1. Three viruses

There are three types of wild poliovirus (1, 2, and 3), and since 1999 it has been possible to stop the transmission of one of them (type 2).

  1. 416 cases

In 2013, 416 new cases of polio were registered. They are almost 99% less than those recorded in 1988, 350,000. A downward trend continues in 2014 because, in the past months, there have been 243 new infections.

  1. 10 million people

The organizations that participate in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative estimate that, with their programs in the last 26 years, 10 million people have been prevented today from suffering a disability derived from this disease.

  1. 7 billion doses

Unicef ​​acquires 1,700 million doses of the oral polio vaccine every year to reach 500 million children. The organization’s social mobilization work ensures that families accept the vaccine when they receive it. Intense efforts in the last decade have led to such acceptance reaching its highest historical levels in countries where the disease is endemic.

  1. One in 200

WHO recalls that one in 200 infections causes irreversible paralysis, usually of the legs. Between 5 and 10% of those affected by paralysis die because they also suffer respiratory system failures.

  1. Eight cents

There are cheap and effective vaccines to prevent polio. There are two types of polio vaccines: oral (OPV) and inactivated (IPV), which is injectable. Being oral, the OPV can be administered by anyone, even by volunteers. A dose of this type of vaccine costs only eight cents.

  1. All the children

“To eradicate polio, all children must be vaccinated.” This is what the WHO warns. He adds: “That includes those who live in the most remote and neglected places on the planet, using any means of transport, from donkeys and motorcycles to helicopters. Truce days are also negotiated in conflict zones.”

Strategies For Polio Eradication

Polio has the epidemiological characteristics of a potentially eradicable disease: it only affects humans, and there is no other reservoir, effective vaccines are available that confer lasting immunity, there are no long-term carriers (with exceptions), and the virus survives for a short time.

Based on the accumulated experience in smallpox eradication, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) approved in 1985 an initiative to eradicate polio in the Region of the Americas for the year 1990. In May 1988, the World Health Assembly, at its 41st session, recognized the progress made in the Region of the Americas and, optimistic for the good results obtained with the Expanded Program on Immunization, adopted the resolution for the global eradication of polio, initially setting the target for the year 2000.

In 1988, the global starting situation for eradication was the notification of almost 350,000 cases of paralytic polio and 125 endemic countries. The situation of the WHO European Region, consisting of 51 member states, was somewhat less unfavorable as a result of mass vaccination campaigns in different countries. During that year 1988, 204 cases were notified in 15 member states.

The global effort to eradicate polio is one of the most important public health initiatives in history. To eradicate polio in the world, coordinated multi-year strategic plans have been implemented progressively from each WHO Region, based on four fundamental strategies: 1) achieve high vaccination coverage with vaccination programs for routine; 2) use complementary vaccination campaigns when it is not possible to achieve what is established in the previous point or specific areas; 3) implement an acute flaccid paralysis (PFA) surveillance system that ensures that all cases of polio are detected, and 4) carry out “sweep campaigns” in areas where transmission chains are identified and with difficult access to programs vaccination Additionally, the strategies contemplate actions aimed at eliminating the poliovirus derived from the strain included in the VPO vaccine and other specific ones to overcome the obstacles that have appeared.

Although the implementation of strategic plans has achieved a significant decline in the global incidence of polio, achieving the goal worldwide is proving more difficult than expected, so it has been moving over time. In the recent final strategy 2013-2018, the objective of eradication of wild poliovirus has been set for 2015.

The eradication procedure requires the certification of elimination of wild poliovirus in the different WHO Regions and the need for containment of poliovirus in the laboratory. Finally, the final phase after eradication will be the interruption of vaccination against polio.…